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24 Nov This presentation is based on a agricultural land use model around the city. This is the theory of urban Geography it describe the agricultural. Thünen’s model of agricultural land, created before The use which a piece of land is put to is a. Figure Von Thünen’s model: the black dot represents a city; 1 (white) to the land (rent) drops with distance from the city, those farming at the other edges of.

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Timber and firewood would be produced for fuel and building materials in the second ring.

von Thunen’s Model of Land Use

The Thuenen model leads to the idea of complete self-sufficiency among farmers. But if wage rates were determined using his formula, thus giving labor a share that will vary as the square root of the joint product of the two factors, A and P.

Culture, Society, and Space by H. The third zone consists of extensive fields crops such as grain. This simply developed space restaurant model reacts however sensitively to changes of the space overcoming costs.

In The Isolated State he also coined the term Grenzkosten marginal cost which would later be popularized by Alfred Marshall in his Principles of Economics. The minimum price of a commodity is calculated by vocational rent, transport costs and fixed production costs mkdel the profit is then the difference between the costs and the fixed market price.

Because of this, producers of perishable crops were willing to outbid producers of less perishable crops in order to gain access to the land closest to the market. In concentrating on the effects of these two variables on profits, removal lsnd other factors results in a homogeneous — and isolated — state: The importance lies less in the pattern of land use predicted than in its analytical approach. The economy in the surrounding rural area would have to rearrange itself according to economic behavior in such a way that each industry brings optimal profit in:.


Animals can be raised far from lsnd city because they are self-transporting. It possesses however due to its thunne nevertheless a high value within geographical questions and methodology. The circular pattern, which can be attributed to only one market and excluding transport costs gradients running from the centre, is for example only one of many conceivable geometrical starting situations.

Johann Heinrich von Thünen

In this case, the model takes a shape of perfect concentric circles. The basic conditions of the model, however, could be approximated by slight modifications of the respective reality. The model has a set of basic assumptions which reflects agricultural conditions around a city in the early 19th century:. The theory generalizes that there is one mode of transport, which is the boat.

It corresponds to the maximum amount a farmer could pay for using the land, without making losses. It can be divided in two parts: Products having low yields with high price and high transport costs relative to its weight or distance due to its weight, will have higher locational rent close to the market than a product having lower transport costs. Wood was a very important fuel for heating and cooking and is very heavy and difficult to transport so it is located close to the city.

Distance from the market. After deducting production costs and location-specific transport costs, however, nothing more remains of the market profits.

Von Thunen’s Regional Land Use Model

Animals tunen walk to the central city for sale or for butchering. The fourth ring would be dedicated to livestock ranching.

Transport cost depends on the distance from the market and different kind of products. The model was developed in an isolated state and did not take into consideration differences in sites local physical conditions.

The pure isolated state over an isotropic plain left. If several markets were present, groups of zones would be formed around each market. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons.


The model compares the relationships between production cost, the market price and the transport cost of an agricultural commodity and is expressed as follows:. This was because, in the early 19 th century, people used wood for building, cooking, and heating.

The potential impacts of modified transport costs a navigable river and the presence of a competing center right. In his time, rye was the most important cash grain crop. Therefore, agricultual would not farm as intensely as those working land closer to the urban center.

The gain from farming per unit area vocational rent decreases with increasing distance from the market. Views Read Edit View history. This means that land close to the community created a higher level of economic rent.

The land surrounding the market is entirely flat and its fertility uniform.

Von Thünen’s Rural Land Use Model | GEOG i:

Murphy 7th edition, The competitive power becomes indirectly measurable over locational rent. Skip to main content. Ranching is located in the final ring. It thnen be divided in two parts:. The most productive activities will thus compete for the closest land to the market and activities not productive enough will locate further away.

Producers of perishable products such as milk and fresh vegetables would pay the highest rent in order to be located close to the market, agriculturral those who produce livestock would locate further from the center because they could move their animals to the market without fear of spoilage.